UC Davis and its partners are addressing the need for innovation and entrepreneurship in graduate education and training. This paper will showcase the Designated Emphasis in Biotechnology graduate education program, cross-disciplinary partnerships and technology brokering. These interactions can bring diverse groups of individuals together to translate ideas into real world applications. The creation of intellectual and human capital at universities must be linked to financial capital and social capital. This can be accomplished by creating dense social networks. PhD programs in science and engineering must be transformed in order to stay relevant in the 21st century. UC Davis has been addressing these issues for close to 20 years and is now seeing significant outcomes. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
China is the largest emerging market in the world. It is also on the front lines of health diplomacy, where the tools of diplomatic statecraft are being employed by public health professions of both the US and China to help improve the practice of public health. This article examines the US Department of Health and Human Services’ (HHS) and the US Centers for Control and Prevention (US CDC) in China, describes critical features of the Chinese health system, presents two examples of US-China collaborations, and describes common management mechanisms and strategies supporting both. This examination will help inform other global health collaborations between the US and China as well as lessons for supporting global health collaborations in other middle income countries. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
Assuring a safe and adequate blood supply in developing nations such as emerging markets is a daunting challenge that directly affects fundamental health metrics of a country. Numerous mortalities can be reduced when an effective national blood transfusion system is in place including leading causes of death such as maternal hemorrhage, sickle cell anemia, and malaria. There exists a circular relationship between blood supply and safety: efforts to ensure donor and recipient safety reduce the population of eligible voluntary blood donors, which in turn restricts blood supply. In this article we describe the main issues for blood supply in developing nations and emerging markets, identify the major causes and impact of transfusion transmitted infections, present a safety model that describes the relationship between defensive barriers in depth to assure safe blood, its effectiveness, and the impact it has on safe blood supply. We use twenty two nations in sub-Sahara Africa to present the safety model. Finally, we discuss strategies for blood safety and supply in developing nations. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
Pharmaceutical marketing has rapidly evolved over the past century and has now entered the digital revolution. This is exemplified by the rise of direct-to-consumer-advertising (“DTCA”), which has traditionally been only allowed in the United States and New Zealand in developed countries, but is now expanding in reach to other jurisdictions. Enabling the “globalization” of pharmaceutical DTCA is Internet-related technologies that are not limited to geographical borders and are highly unregulated. This DTCA digital “spillover” into markets that prohibit it can have adverse impact on health outcomes and health-related spending. Emerging markets may represent the next logically step for digital DTCA proliferation, given their untapped market potential and explosive growth. Further research and global health policy reform is necessary to address this “emerging” global health issue. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
Recently becoming the sixth largest economy in the world, Brazil has relied, in large part, on its comparative advantages of resource extraction and agriculture. Sustained long-term growth will require Brazil moves into higher value industries that build of off its comparative advantage. Biotechnology has surfaced as a sector of strategic importance, and government involvement in finance, education and research and development has created an industry on the cusp of global significance. By examining sources of finance, human capital accumulation, research and development, intellectual property rights and supporting institutions, we seek to provide a broad overview of Brazil’s nascent biotechnology sector. Spotlights of the agriculture, human health and reagent industries as well as an analysis of the Minas Gerais biotechnology cluster flesh out biotechnology’s place in Brazil’s economy. An antiquated intellectual property rights regime, an insufficient number of qualified researchers and dearth of venture capital firms and private sources of finance are key bottlenecks that must be addressed in order to promote industry growth and consolidation. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
Over the past decades, global health has moved from discrete disease campaigns to major developmental strategies. However, medication affordability remains an important, unsolved challenge for industry and the global community. This effort requires coordinated actions by multiple stakeholders. Industry can play a specific role through responsible, differentiated pricing of medicines. Public policies should incentivize such pricing policies rather than discouraging them by external reference pricing or parallel trade. Providing opportunities for industry to invest in emerging markets sustainably, patients will benefit from greater access and support attainment of the UN Millennium Development Goals. Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology
Contract research organization (CRO) outsourcing has become a critical strategy for multinational biopharmaceutical companies looking to reduce costs, time-to-market and expanding their pipelines as blockbuster patents expire. Much of the growth in the CRO industry is coming from emerging markets, such as China and India. China's CRO industry began in 1996 and is still relatively young and fragmented. However, it is growing quickly at an annual rate of 30%. Global CRO giants such as Quintiles, PPD, Covance, Parexel and ICON have invested in facilities in China and some Chinese CROs have grown to become global players. This paper will provide a detailed analysis on CROs in China, including the characterization of companies and services provided, recent IPO/M&A deal activity, trends in the sector, and intellectual property and regulatory issues to consider. Readers will be able to obtain a clear picture of China's CRO landscape. This paper should serve as a guide for companies considering outsourcing R&D to China and investors looking for opportunities in China's CRO industry.
Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology