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There are various definitions of an entrepreneurial university, yet there is a lack of agreement about its core components. This article defines the five key characteristics of an entrepreneurial university based on examples of successful bio-clusters in the United States and Europe, and suggests an agenda for stakeholders.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

This article, written from an industry perspective, examines the current trend towards the implementation of single-use disposable technologies in the biopharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors. Single-use technologies are generally sterile, plastic disposable items implemented to replace traditional pharmaceutical processing items that require recycling, cleaning and in-house sterilisation. The forces driving the technological change are a mix of process efficiencies (including cost reduction) and sterility assurance. This article examines the advantages of some single-use systems used for aseptic processing, although in doing so a cautionary approach is adopted, particularly with regard to the validation requirements and practical considerations when such technologies are implemented.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

Canada's biotech sector ranks within the top five globally, but its life sciences venture capital (VC) industry is among the worlds weakest. This makes for an interesting case study in understanding the disconnect between low levels of VC and a healthy innovation ecosystem in terms of R&D spending, skilled workforce and enterprise support. Three key provinces (Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia) that have taken significantly different approaches to attracting VC are large enough to attract as much government investment as whole emerging markets. The aim of this article is to present evidence from a Canadian natural economic experiment in order to evaluate the effectiveness of varying government policies in attracting VC investment, to illustrate how these policies need tailoring to individual sub-sectors of the life sciences sector, and to highlight potential policy mechanisms that may be applicable beyond Canada's borders. We employ VC returns on investment (ROI) and exit data as a proxy for our evaluation. Our results suggest that government biotechnology investment needs to be structured end-to-end from early to late stage in order to be successful, that prevalence of private and international VC flows is critical for generating market efficiency, and that there is an ‘optimal’ efficient amount of capital before ROI result in diminishing returns.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

This article examines the effect of the intellectual property (IP) environment in developing countries on the level of foreign direct investment (FDI) and technology transfer occurring in the biopharmaceutical field in these countries. In particular, it considers the correlation between the strength of IP protection in several developing countries (using the Pharmaceutical IP Index) and the number of clinical trials taking place in these countries (as a proxy of biomedical FDI). The article finds that overall, the strength of national pharmaceutical IP environments provide a good estimate of the level of clinical trials taking place in these countries. Accordingly, countries with a more robust level of pharmaceutical IP protection tend to enjoy a greater level of clinical trial activity by multinational research-based companies. In other words, by choosing to improve their level of protection of pharmaceutical IPRs (together with other factors), developing countries may also be exposed to higher levels of biomedical FDI, not least in the field of clinical trials.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

By adapting insights and methodologies from design thinking, a modern scientific R&D organization may have the potential to increase the speed, inventiveness and vitality of their output and become an explosive engine of growth. Modern design consultancies face the challenge of producing original, creative work for their clients on project after project, and have thus developed several strategies and behaviors to produce innovative content repeatedly at a fast pace. The innovation strategies of design firms are different than traditional models of academic and scientific scholarship and rely on new models of radical collaboration by teams, knowledge sharing, wide-reaching cross-pollination and the habit of gaining early insights through tangible expressions of ideas in order to foster continual and rapid innovation.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

The British colonial administration established the University of Ibadan (UI) in 1948 as an extension of the University College London and it became Nigeria's first full-fledged and premier university in 1962. The university comprises 13 faculties and a distance learning programme. Among the university's faculties is one for Science, one for Technology and another for Agriculture and Forestry. These are in addition to the Research Centres which address specific societal needs. The institution boasts of over 20 000 students, 30 per cent of which are postgraduate.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

Biotechnology companies can play an important role in advancing technologies for global health. Initiatives such as Genzyme's Humanitarian Assistance for Neglected Diseases and Alnylam's Intellectual Property (IP) contributions to the Pool for Open Innovation against Neglected Tropical Diseases show a commitment to helping produce badly needed health technologies, but unmet needs for new drugs, vaccines and diagnostics for diseases affecting developing countries remain. Controlling malaria, visceral leishmaniasis and other infectious diseases that cause significant morbidity and mortality requires new and improved technological tools. Biotechnology companies’ expertise in biologics, point-of-care diagnostics and preclinical drug development is invaluable in this field, which is short of innovators.

Most firms, however, face disincentives in conducting R&D for global health since product markets are small and uncertain, the scientific problems are tough to solve, and few existing financing or policy mechanisms compensate for the risk. Product Development Partnerships and other non-profit initiatives have taken on much of the work in this area through grant financing and have often partnered with industry, but biotechnology firms could play a greater role. New policy and financing mechanisms that can balance the investment equation and encourage biotechnology and pharmaceutical firms to include global health diseases in their R&D portfolios could unleash important advances in global health technologies.

Full details at the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology