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TechTransferWatch is a search engine and alert service for licenseable technologies from academic labs, foundations, and government.

Click the patents below for more details, or visit TechTransferWatch.com for more options.

Production of spider silk protein in corn
Anne W. Sylvester, Randolph V. Lewis, David Jackson
University of Wyoming
Patent number: 8,993,844
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Control of fruit dehiscence in plants by indehiscent1 genes
Martin F. Yanofsky, Sarah Liljegren
University of California
Patent number: 8,993,843
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Plant-based production of heterologous proteins
Minsook Hwang, Benjamin E. Lindenmuth, Karen A. McDonald, Abhaya M. Dandekar, Bryce W. Falk, Sang-Kyu Jung, Nathaniel J. Kingsbury
University of California
Patent number: 8,993,839
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Carol Anne Colton, Michael Peter Vitek, Judianne Davis, William E. VanNostrand
Duke University
Patent number: 8,993,833
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


SMNdelta7 degron: novel compositions and methods of use
Gideon Dreyfuss, Sungchan Cho
University of Pennsylvania
Patent number: 8,993,741
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Methods and compositions for detecting and modulating O-glycosylation
Harvard
Patent number: 8,993,718
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Compositions and methods for targeted immunomodulatory antibodies and fusion proteins
Atul Bedi, Rajani Ravi
Johns Hopkins University
Patent number: 8,993,524
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Peptides and methods using same for diagnosis and treatment of amyloid-associated disease
Tel Aviv University
Patent number: 8,993,510
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Composition for a mitotic remodeling of chromosomes
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Patent number: 8,993,330
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Method of efficiently establishing induced pluripotent stem cells
Shinya Yamanaka, Koji Tanabe
Kyoto University
Patent number: 8,993,329
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Media conditioning for improving gene delivery efficiency to differentiating embryonic stem cells
Martin L. Yarmush, Eric J. Wallenstein, Rene S. Schloss
Rutgers University
Patent number: 8,993,328
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Bio-matrix stretcher
Ramaswamy Krishnan, Chan Young Park, Jeffrey Fredberg, Fei Liu, Justin Mih, Daniel Tschumperlin
Harvard
Patent number: 8,993,312
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Genetically engineered cyanobacteria
Ruanbao Zhou, William Gibbons
South Dakota State University
Patent number: 8,993,303
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Mutants of
Joseph Wayne Conlan, Anders Sjostedt
National Research Council of Canada
Patent number: 8,993,302
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Overexpression of phytase genes in yeast systems
Cornell University
Patent number: 8,993,300
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Continuous diffusion based method of cultivating photosynthetic microorganisms in a sealed photobioreactor to obtain volatile hydrocarbons
Anastasios Melis, Fiona Bentley, Hsu-Ching Chen Wintz
University of California
Patent number: 8,993,290
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Biocatalysts and methods for conversion of hemicellulose hydrolysates to biobased products
James F. Preston
University of Florida
Patent number: 8,993,287
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Terpene synthases from
, , , , ,
University of Western Australia
Patent number: 8,993,284
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Method for producing alkaloids
Fumihiko Sato, Hiromichi Minami
Kyoto University
Patent number: 8,993,280
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Solid gel amplification method and apparatus for genotyping and pathogen detection
Alexey Atrazhev, Jason Acker
University of Alberta
Patent number: 8,993,270
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


In vivo and in vitro olefin cyclopropanation catalyzed by heme enzymes
California Institute of Technology
Patent number: 8,993,262
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Method for functional testing of site-specific DNA methylation
Weiguo Han, Simon D. Spivack, Miao Kevin Shi
Albert Einstein College of Medicine
Patent number: 8,993,242
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Engineering and optimization of systems, methods and compositions for sequence manipulation with functional domains
, , , , , , , ,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Patent number: 8,993,233
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Identification of the causative mutation for leopard complex spotting and congenital stationary night blindness in equines and a method for testing for same
Rebecca Bellone, Heather Marie Holl, Samantha Ann Brooks, George Forsyth, Rebecca Bellone, Heather Marie Holl, Samantha Ann Brooks, George Forsyth
University of Saskatchewan
Patent number: 8,993,232
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Methods for stem cell production and therapy
Pier Paolo Claudio, Jagan V. Valluri
Marshall University
Patent number: 8,993,231
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Method for detecting and distinguishing infectious norovirus from inactivated norovirus
David H. Kingsley
Department of Agriculture
Patent number: 8,993,229
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Multicomponent degradable cationic polymers
Jordan J. Green, Joel C. Sunshine, Nupura S. Bhise, Ron B. Shmueli, Stephany Y. Tzeng
Johns Hopkins University
Patent number: 8,992,991
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Disulfide trap MHC class I molecules and uses therefor
Ted H. Hansen, Daved Fremont, Janet Connolly, Lonnie Lybarger, Michael Miley, Vesselin Mitaksov, Steven Truscott
Washington University
Patent number: 8,992,937
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Methods for activating T cells and modulating an immune response
Derya Unutmaz, Qi Wan, Lina Kozhaya
New York University
Patent number: 8,992,933
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Metal-citrate transporter antigen from
Robert P. Doyle, Joshua J. Lensbouer
Syracuse University
Patent number: 8,992,921
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Reactivation of axon growth and recovery in chronic spinal cord injury
Stephen M. Strittmatter
Yale University
Patent number: 8,992,918
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


Compositions and methods for engraftment and increasing survival of adult muscle stem cells
Bradley Bruce Olwin, John K. Hall, Kathleen Kelly Tanaka
University of Colorado
Patent number: 8,992,906
Issue Date: March 31, 2015


TechTransferWatch is a search engine and alert service for licenseable technologies from academic labs, foundations, and government.

Click the patents below for more details, or visit TechTransferWatch.com for more options.

Imaging and evaluating embryos, oocytes, and stem cells
Stanford University
Patent number: 8,989,475
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Promoters and methods thereof
Ju-Kon Kim, Su-Hyun Park, Yang-Do Choi
Myongji University
Patent number: 8,987,557
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Cotton plant with seed-specific reduction in gossypol
Keerti S. Rathore, Ganesan Sunilkumar, LeAnne M. Campbell
Texas A&M University System
Patent number: 8,987,554
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Immunotoxin fusion proteins and means for expression thereof
David M. Neville, Jr., Jerry T. Thompson, Huaizhong Hu, Jung-Hee Woo, Shenglin Ma, Jonathan Mark Hexham, Mary Ellen Digan
Department of Health and Human Services
Patent number: 8,987,426
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Covalently dimerized bivalent binding agents
John C. Zwaagstra, Maureen D. O’Connor-McCourt, Traian Sulea, Catherine Collins, Myriam Banville, Maria L. Jaramillo
National Research Council of Canada
Patent number: 8,987,417
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Recombinant bacterial lipocalin blc and uses thereof
Arne Skerra, Andre Schiefner
Technische Universität München
Patent number: 8,987,415
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Hydrogen bond surrogate macrocycles as modulators of Ras
Paramjit Arora, Dafna Bar-Sagi, Anupam Patgiri, Kamlesh Yadav
New York University
Patent number: 8,987,412
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) targeting therapies for the treatment of huntington’S disease
Neil Aronin, Edith Pfister, Phillip D. Zamore
University of Massachusetts
Patent number: 8,987,222
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Therapeutic peptides and use thereof against huntington’s disease
Florence Maschat, Marie-Laure Parmentier, Nathalie Bonneaud, Yoan Arribat, Florence Maschat, Marie-Laure Parmentier, Nathalie Bonneaud, Yoan Arribat, Florence Maschat, Marie-Laure Parmentier, Nathalie Bonneaud, Yoan Arribat
Montpellier 2 University
Patent number: 8,987,211
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Botulinum neurotoxin a receptor and the use thereof
Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation
Patent number: 8,987,208
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Peptides which have analgesic effects and which inhibit ASIC channels
Éric Lingueglia, Sylvie Diochot, Anne Baron-Forster, Miguel Salinas, Michel Lazdunski
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique
Patent number: 8,987,207
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Potent and selective mediators of cholesterol efflux
John K. Bielicki, Jan Johansson
University of California
Patent number: 8,987,192
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Treating hepatitis C virus infection
University of Texas System
Patent number: 8,987,189
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Compositions and methods for monitoring and altering protein folding and solubility
Matthew P. DeLisa, Adam Charles Fisher
Cornell University
Patent number: 8,987,173
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Methods and compositions for increasing biological molecule stability
James Bardwell, Linda Foit, Ajamaluddin Malik, Tobias Baumann, Maximilian Kern
University of Michigan
Patent number: 8,986,997
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Large-scale propagation and maintenance method of embryoid bodies generated from stem cells
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Patent number: 8,986,996
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Cell rolling separation
Rohit Nandkumar Karnik, Seungpyo Hong, Ying Mei, Daniel Griffith Anderson, Jeffrey Michael Karp, Robert S. Langer, Suman Bose
Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Patent number: 8,986,988
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Setting of multiple priming oligonucleotides for solid gel amplification in hydrogels
Alexey Atrazhev
University of Alberta
Patent number: 8,986,959
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Method for producing human epidermal growth factor in large volume from yeast
Jung Hoon Sohn, Jung Hoon Bae, Mi Jin Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Soon Ho Park, Kwang Mook Lim
Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology
Patent number: 8,986,956
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Macrocyclic compounds with a hybrid peptidic/non-peptidic backbone and methods for their preparation
Rudi Fasan, John R. Frost, Jessica M. Smith, Francesca C. Vitali
University of Rochester
Patent number: 8,986,953
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Selective detection of human rhinovirus
Xiaoyan Lu, Dean Erdman
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Patent number: 8,986,933
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Superhydrophobic surfaces
Evelyn N. Wang, Matthew McCarthy, Ryan Enright, James N. Culver, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Reza Ghodssi, Evelyn N. Wang, Matthew McCarthy, Ryan Enright, James N. Culver, Konstantinos Gerasopoulos, Reza Ghodssi
University of Maryland, College Park
Patent number: 8,986,814
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Immunogenic lipopeptides comprising T-helper and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) epitopes
David Jackson, Weiguang Zeng
Queensland Institute of Medical Research
Patent number: 8,986,700
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Enhanced staphylolytic activity of the
David M. Donovan, Lorena Rodriguez Rubio, Beatriz Martinez Fernandez, Ana Rodriguez, Pilar Garcia Suarez
Department of Agriculture
Patent number: 8,986,695
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Multilayered silk scaffolds for meniscus tissue engineering
David L. Kaplan, Biman B. Mandal
Tufts University
Patent number: 8,986,380
Issue Date: March 24, 2015


Compositions and methods for brown fat induction and activity using FNDC5
Bruce M. Spiegelman, Pontus Bostrom
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Patent number: 8,969,519
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Glucagon/GLP-1 receptor co-agonists
Elisabetta Bianchi, Antonello Pessi, Jonathan Day, Richard Dimarchi, David Smiley
Indiana University
Patent number: 8,969,294
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Matrix scaffold with antimicrobial activity
Marsha Rolle, Fioleda Prifti, Chris Malcuit, Terri Anne Camesano, Tanja Dominko, Denis Kole
Worcester Polytechnic Institute
Patent number: 8,969,290
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Amide based glucagon and superfamily peptide prodrugs
Richard D. DiMarchi, Binbin Kou
Indiana University
Patent number: 8,969,288
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Oligonucleotide array for tissue typing
Ellis L. Reinherz, Vladimir Brusic, Guanglan Zhang, Derin Benerci Keskin, David Deluca, Honghuang Lin
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Patent number: 8,969,254
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Method for inducing human blood-born hematospheres through aggregate culture and expanding blood adult stem cells and progenitor cells, and stem cell prepared by the same
Young-Bae Park, Hyo-Soo Kim, Hyun-Jae Kang, Hyun-Jai Cho, Jin Hur, Jong-Han Park
Seoul National University
Patent number: 8,969,079
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Neuronal specific targeting of caveolin expression to restore synaptic signaling and improve cognitive function in the neurodegenerative brain and motor function in spinal cord
Brian P. Head, Piyush M. Patel, Hemal Patel, David M. Roth
University of California
Patent number: 8,969,077
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Process for integrated production of ethanol and seaweed sap from
Kalpana Haresh Mody, Pushpito Kumar Ghosh, Barindra Sana, G. Gnanasekaran, Atindra Dinkerray Shukla, K. Eswaran, Harshad Ramanbhai Brahmbhatt, Bharatiben Gunavantray Shah, Sreekumaran Thampy, Bhavanath Jha
India Council of Scientific and Industrial Research
Patent number: 8,969,056
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Protease assay
Stefan H. Bossmann, Deryl L. Troyer, Matthew T. Basel
Kansas State University
Patent number: 8,969,027
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Polymeric reverse micelles as selective extraction agents and related methods of MALDI-MS analysis
Sankaran Thayumanavan, Richard Vachet, Elamprakash N. Savariar, Marianny Y. Combariza
University of Massachusetts
Patent number: 8,969,026
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Gene targets associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and methods of use thereof
Aaron D. Gitler
University of Pennsylvania
Patent number: 8,969,005
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Materials and methods for predicting recurrence of non-small cell lung cancer
Lela Buckingham
Rush University Medical Center
Patent number: 8,969,001
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Imaging of protease activity in live cells using activity based probes
Matthew S. Bogyo, Galia Blum, Georges von Degenfeld
Stanford University
Patent number: 8,968,700
Issue Date: March 03, 2015


Method for the treatment of acquired lymphedema
Raymond Tabibiazar, Stanley G. Rockson
Stanford University
Patent number: 8,965,708
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method for enhancing thermotolerance of plant relating to exportin1A and genetic engineering applications thereof
Shaw-Jye Wu, Lian-Chin Wang, Shin-Jye Wu, Ching-Hui Yeh, Chun-An Lu
National Central University
Patent number: 8,962,919
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Constructs for enhancing immune responses
Hildegund C. J. Ertl, Marcio O. Lasaro, Luis C. S. Ferreira
Wistar Institute
Patent number: 8,962,816
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Humanized monoclonal antibodies and methods of use
Wayne Marasco, Jianhua Sui, Quan Zhu, Thomas Kupper
Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
Patent number: 8,962,806
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Graft polymers for enhanced intracellular delivery of antisense molecules
David I. Devore, Charles Roth
Rutgers University
Patent number: 8,962,757
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Material for removing cauxin in cat urine
Shinya Matsuno, Kyoichi Saito, Tetsuro Yamashita, Ayako Ito, Yasuyuki Suzuta, Shinya Matsuno, Kyoichi Saito, Tetsuro Yamashita, Ayako Ito, Yasuyuki Suzuta
Iwate University
Patent number: 8,962,705
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Cysteine and cystine prodrugs to treat schizophrenia and reduce drug cravings
James M. Cook, David A. Baker, Wenyuan Yin, Edward Merle Johnson, II, James M. Cook, David A. Baker, Wenyuan Yin, Edward Merle Johnson, II
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee
Patent number: 8,962,692
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Methods and kits to identify invasive glioblastoma
Kerri L. Kislin, Michael E. Berens
Translational Genomics Research Institute
Patent number: 8,962,581
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Eye drop composition for prevention and treatment of ophthalmic diseases containing fusion protein of FK506 binding protein
Soo Young Choi, Dae Won Kim, Sung Ho Lee, Jinseu Park, Won Sik Eum
Hallym University
Patent number: 8,962,567
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Enzyme treatment of foodstuffs for celiac sprue
Felix Hausch, Gary Gray, Lu Shan, Chaitan Khosla
Stanford University
Patent number: 8,962,545
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Restriction/modification polypeptides, polynucleotides, and methods
Janet Westpheling, DaeHwan Chung, Jennifer Huddleston, Joel A. Farkas
University of Georgia
Patent number: 8,962,333
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method of making induced pluripotent stem cell from adipose stem cells using minicircle DNA vectors
Joseph Wu, Michael T. Longaker, Mark A. Kay, Ning Sung, FangJun Jia, Zhi-Ying Chen, Nicholas Panetta, Deepak Gupta
Stanford University
Patent number: 8,962,331
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Gene cluster
Wen Liu, Nan Jiang, Xudong Qu
Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Patent number: 8,962,329
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures
Martha R. Stampfer, James C. Garbe
University of California
Patent number: 8,962,325
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Methods for testing an immune response using cultures of T cells, B cells, dendritic cells and follicular dendritic cells
William L. Warren, Donald Drake, III, Janice Moser, Inderpal Singh, Haifeng Song, Eric Mishkin, John G. Tew
Virginia Commonwealth University
Patent number: 8,962,319
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method of deriving mesenchymal stem cells from ES cells using FGF2
Sai Kiang Lim, Elias Lye
Agency for Science, Technology and Research
Patent number: 8,962,318
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method and kit for diagnosing autism using gene expression profiling
Valerie Wailin Hu
George Washington University
Patent number: 8,962,307
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Stable, functional chimeric cellobiohydrolase class I enzymes
Frances H. Arnold, Pete Heinzelman
California Institute of Technology
Patent number: 8,962,295
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Scyllo-inositol-producing cell and scyllo-inositol production method using said cells
Kenichi Yoshida, Hitoshi Ashida
Kobe University
Patent number: 8,962,287
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Engineered bacteria produce succinate from sucrose
Ka-Yiu San, George N. Bennett, Jian Wang
William Marsh Rice University
Patent number: 8,962,272
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Non-heating detection method for dermatophyte
Sakon Noriki
University of Fukui
Patent number: 8,962,264
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method for producing circular DNA formed from single-molecule DNA
Shinichi Mizuno, Koji Nagafuji, Takashi Okamura
Kurume University
Patent number: 8,962,245
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Method for electrochemically identifying target nucleotide sequences
Benoît Limoges, Thibaut Defever, Damien Marchal, Benoît Limoges, Thibaut Defever, Damien Marchal
Paris Diderot University
Patent number: 8,962,240
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Methods and compositions for bone formation
Alan R. Davis, Elizabeth A. Davis, Kevin Moran, Ronke Olabisi, Jennifer L. West, Christy Franco, Alan R. Davis, Elizabeth A. Davis, Kevin Moran, Ronke Olabisi, Jennifer L. West, Christy Franco
William Marsh Rice University
Patent number: 8,961,999
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


Baculoviruses with enhanced virion production and a method for the production of baculoviruses
Gary Blissard, Jian Zhou
Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research
Patent number: 8,961,951
Issue Date: February 24, 2015


This is a guest post from Halina Zakowicz, Marketing Specialist at Biovest International, Inc. Do you have a response to Halina’s post? Respond in the comments section below.

Scaling up cell culture production can be a tricky proposition.halina

Generating large amounts of cell-secreted proteins is labor-intensive when utilizing traditional cell culture methods. Quality and yields can be inconsistent; these methods are also prone to contamination due to multiple aseptic manipulations. Making the jump to large-scale systems isn’t easy either, often requiring capital expenditures that are not feasible.

Have you been using petri dishes, plates, flasks or spinner bottles for small-scale production of cell-secreted proteins? Are you looking to scale up your protein manufacturing using alternatives to traditional mammalian and insect cell culture?

If so, you should consider hollow fiber bioreactors.

Scaling up poses many challenges

Small-scale cell culture typically requires little more than individual bottles of media, a tabletop incubator and 30-60 minutes a day from a lab technician. However, generating cell numbers that are 100-10,000 fold higher catches many labs short-handed. Lab technicians are usually not hired to perform cell culture as their full-time job; furthermore, lab space is always at a premium.

There are a number of challenges involved in scaling up cell culture, including the following:

Different cell dynamics

What is frequently taken for granted is how the dynamics of nutrient delivery and waste removal change as a function of scale. When expanding and supporting large-scale cell culture volumes, the maintenance of proper pH and temperature becomes challenging, as does the delivery of adequate oxygen, nutrients and growth factors.

Increased labor requirements

Not only do increased numbers of cells require additional passaging, but once the cell-derived products are ready to harvest, they must be purified and concentrated from large volumes of supernatant. Both the additional cells and their derived products require additional labor.

Increased lab space requirements

Many laboratories scale up their production capacity by investing in entire rooms filled with spinner flasks or roller bottles; other labs purchase large stirred-tank bioreactors. Both of these options take up valuable laboratory space.

Higher costs

When expanding cell culture operations, expense and capital budgets are used to purchase extra media, sera and specialized equipment. Additional technician hours must be allotted and budgeted for.

Hollow fiber bioreactors offer one solution

To address the challenges posed by large-scale cell culture, researchers and commercial manufacturing operations are increasingly turning to an established, yet not well known, technology called the hollow fiber bioreactor. This technology addresses the problems outlined above by reducing the following:

Media

The hollow fiber bioreactor system consists of thousands of semi-permeable capillary membranes arranged in parallel and bundled into small cylindrical polycarbonate shells that typically take up the volume of a 12-ounce beverage can.

As a result, two distinct and separate compartments are generated: an intracapillary (IC) space enclosed within the hollow fibers, and an extracapillary (EC) space surrounding the hollow fibers.

hollow-fiber-bioreactorFigure 1. A standard hollow fiber bioreactor shown with its enclosed intracapillary (IC) and extracapillary (EC) spaces.

The small size of the hollow fiber bioreactor system means that significantly less media is required compared with stirred-tank bioreactors. Also, growth factors and other high molecular weight nutrients are unnecessary in the IC space, resulting in a reduced need for serum.

Oversight

Hollow fiber bioreactor systems can be automated for media flow, pH, temperature and oxygen control, and EC cycling. The automation of these cell culture parameters means that less oversight is required to grow large numbers of healthy cells (>109 cells/ml) and to generate large quantities of cell-secreted proteins.

Space

Stirred-tank bioreactors require additional laboratory space for housing and maintenance. Animals used for ascites production must be housed in specialized rooms. In contrast, hollow fiber bioreactor systems have a very small footprint and in many cases can be stored on a lab bench or inside an incubator.

Downstream processing

Because cell-secreted proteins such as monoclonal antibodies or vaccines remain with the cells in the EC space of the hollow fiber bioreactor, they automatically concentrate and do not need to undergo time-consuming downstream processing, a required step for most protein manufacturing processes.

Enabling efficient, cost-effective protein production

Due to their technological advantages over traditional cell culture methods, hollow fiber bioreactors are being increasingly used by academic and research laboratories and biotech manufacturing plants for mammalian and insect culture-based protein production. They also have been — for decades — the workhorse of companies that manufacture human and veterinary IVD products worldwide.

In light of the recent influenza outbreaks, for example, there has been particular interest in using hollow fiber technology to rapidly produce viral vaccines not tainted by allergy-inducing animal proteins. Likewise, both price and ethical concerns over using mouse ascites have situated the hollow fiber bioreactor as a more humane method for large-scale in vitro generation of monoclonal antibodies and other cell-secreted proteins.

Because the hollow fiber bioreactor offers a compact, efficient, economical and long-lived method for protein generation, this technology is becoming increasingly employed across laboratories, and especially laboratories that wish to find an easy and cost-effective method for scaling up their production capacities.

About the author:
As marketing specialist at Biovest International, Inc., Halina helps customers understand how hollow fiber bioreactors can be used to scale up traditional cell culture and facilitate novel in vitro applications like vaccine production. Biovest also uses hollow fiber technology in its upstream protein manufacturing and downstream processing services when working with academic, research and pharmaceutical customers.

Journal of Commercial Biotechnology This paper is part of the free Open Access archive of the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

Biotechnology in India: Public–private partnerships

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ABSTRACT: As the purpose of this study was a survey of public sector–private industry collaborations of the biotechnology sector in India, an organisational and functional overview of this sector was needed. Therefore, rather than studying a hypothetical biotech sector in India, the focus of this work was to study the public–private partnerships (PPP) that are occurring in India in the area of modern biotechnology...

The Journal of Commercial Biotechnology is a unique forum for all those involved in biotechnology commercialization to present, share, and explore new ideas, latest thinking and best practices, making it an indispensable guide for those developing projects and careers within this fast moving field.

Each issue publishes peer-reviewed, authoritative, cutting-edge articles written by the leading practitioners and researchers in the field, addressing topics such as:

  • Management
  • Policy
  • Finance
  • Law
  • Regulation
  • Bioethics

For more information, see the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology website

Journal of Commercial Biotechnology This paper is part of the free Open Access archive of the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

Assessing the history and value of Human Genome Sciences

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ABSTRACT: Human Genome Science (HGS) aspired to dominate the emergent field of genomics by discovering expressed gene sequences and developing therapeutic and diagnostic products based on proprietary genes. While HGS’ accomplishments fell short of their own lofty expectations, by the time HGS was acquired by GlaxoSmithKline, the company had extensive intellectual property and had launched a product with >$1 billion market potential...

The Journal of Commercial Biotechnology is a unique forum for all those involved in biotechnology commercialization to present, share, and explore new ideas, latest thinking and best practices, making it an indispensable guide for those developing projects and careers within this fast moving field.

Each issue publishes peer-reviewed, authoritative, cutting-edge articles written by the leading practitioners and researchers in the field, addressing topics such as:

  • Management
  • Policy
  • Finance
  • Law
  • Regulation
  • Bioethics

For more information, see the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology website

Drug Patent Expirations for March 2015

Tradename Applicant Generic Name Patent Number Patent Expiration
SUSTIVA Bristol Myers Squibb efavirenz 5,663,169*PED Mar 2, 2015
ATRIPLA Gilead efavirenz; emtricitabine; tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 5,663,169*PED Mar 2, 2015
DEPOCYT Pacira Pharms Inc cytarabine 5,723,147 Mar 3, 2015
AGENERASE Glaxosmithkline amprenavir 5,723,490 Mar 3, 2015
DEPODUR Pacira Pharms Inc morphine sulfate 5,723,147 Mar 3, 2015
KYNAMRO Genzyme Corp mipomersen sodium 6,222,025 Mar 6, 2015
ENABLEX Warner Chilcott Llc darifenacin hydrobromide 5,096,890 Mar 13, 2015
ADENOSCAN Astellas adenosine 5,731,296 Mar 24, 2015
IPRIVASK Marathon Pharms Llc desirudin recombinant 5,733,874 Mar 31, 2015
MIACALCIN Sebela Ireland Ltd calcitonin salmon 5,759,565 Mar 31, 2015
ONEXTON Dow Pharm benzoyl peroxide; clindamycin phosphate 5,733,886 Mar 31, 2015
MIACALCIN Sebela Ireland Ltd calcitonin salmon 5,733,569 Mar 31, 2015
ACANYA Dow Pharm benzoyl peroxide; clindamycin phosphate 5,733,886 Mar 31, 2015
*Drugs may be covered by multiple patents or regulatory protections. See the DrugPatentWatch database for complete details.

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Global Biotechnology InventorsI was just notified of a fascinating paper citing my research from DrugPatentWatch.com.

Briefly, I found two surprising results: Firstly, pharmaceutical innovation has been essentially immobile — it remains almost completely rooted in the United States and Western Europe. Secondly, there is virtually no innovation coming out of so-called emerging economies such as India and China (i.e. <1% as many patent inventors as the US).

Going further, Hu et al published a social network analysis of pharmaceutical innovation. They found that the network of international collaboration developed from a star-like US-centric network in the late 1990s to a more distributed network with a diminished centrality of the US in the late 2000s. Importantly the decrease is US centrality is due to increase collaboration between European neighbors, rather than due to a rise among emerging economies.

This is a guest post from Susan K Finston, President of Finston Consulting. Do you have a response to Susan’s post? Respond in the comments section below.

Susan Kling FinstonFor the next chapter in this continuing series, let’s turn back to India and the draft National IPR Policy currently under debate in New Delhi. A great deal of digital ink has been spilled on the constitution of the IPR Think Tank that produced the draft Policy, with less attention given to the importance of the detailed recommendations to improve the environment for creation, commercialization and management of IP in India, with particular attention to the IP challenges of Micro-Small & Medium Enterprises or MSMEs.

With regard to the appointments to the IP Think Tank, IPR academics,  NGOs and assorted IP-skeptics are aggrieved by the appointment of actual IP practitioners with experience in corporate affairs, industrial R&D, patent litigation, WIPO and the Courts, preferring that the Centre Government leave IP policy to the PhDs to avoid ‘potential conflict of interest.’ These criticisms are available online here and here.

In the event, the Modi Government chose a broader, gender-diverse range of experts for the IP Think Tank, appointing a venerable former Judge of the Madras high court, Justice Prabha Sridevan as Chairperson, and including two of India’s leading female litigators, Senior Advocate Ms. Pratibha Singh and Advocate Ms Punita Bhargaval. Rounding out the group are Dr. Unnat Pandit of Cadila Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Shri Rajeev Srinivasan, Director, Asian School of Business, Thiruvananthapuram, and Shri Narendra K. Sabharwal, Retired Deputy DG, World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) and now Chair of the FICCI-IPR Committee as the final member and Convenor. The Modi Government also provided opportunities for public comment by stakeholders including both before and after the IPR Think Tank’s submission of the draft document, and posted the draft National IPR Policy online.

Apart from persistent ad hominem attacks on IPR Think Tank Members – because only professors can be ‘IP experts’ –  the primary substantive complaint relating the draft IPR Policy is the threadbare assertion that there is no link between IP, innovation and assimilation of novel technologies for creation of economic and social value. This is an issue that also figured prominently in an earlier ill-fated IP Policy Baseline Draft submitted to the Modi Government by Professors Shamnad Basheer and Yogesh Pai.

Before circling back to the linkages between IP protection and enterprise development, it may be helpful to review the origins on the Basheer/Pai Document, where the Modi Government had earlier tasked three Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) IP chairs – Professors Prabuddha Ganguli, Shamnad Basheer and Yogesh Pai – with submitting a draft IP policy. At some point Prabuddha Ganguly, the senior member of the team with perhaps the greatest expertise on the strategic importance of IP for enterprises, left the group. The remaining two like-minded academes Shamnad Basheer and Yogesh Pai apparently did not seek advice from the Government on how to – or even whether to – proceed, and subsequently submitted a beautifully drafted if highly impractical document.
(In full disclosure: I have known Prabuddha Ganguly and Shamnad Basheer for many years. I respect and admire them both. While I do not know Shri Yogesh Pai personally, as he is Shamnad’s close colleague I am sure he is also brilliant.)

The Basheer/Pai draft is a lyrical document, coming close to poetry in parts, with majestic, soaring language, like the following:

“While India will continue to draw on foreign precedent from jurisdictions that have had a longer and more sophisticated history with intellectual property, it will not blindly adopt their norms. Rather it will seek to adapt them to the local conditions in a bid to promote and protect national interest. Much in line with words of wisdom from the father of the nation, Mahatma Gandhi who once said: “I do not want my house to be walled in on all sides and my windows to be stuffed. I want the cultures of all lands to be blown about my house as freely as possible. But I refuse to be blown off my feet by any.’“ (p. 2)

However earnestly felt, the Basheer/Pai document reads like an IP manifesto rather than a national IP policy, lacking specific, detailed policy recommendations needed by Indian Industry for IP administration, adjudication, or training.  Basheer and Pai dispose of IP enforcement issues in the closing paragraph in 4 sentences (and one fragment)(p. 11). While touching on traditional knowledge, the paper makes no recommendations for improving access to IP rights for R&D-intensive MSMEs, despite growing recognition that innovative MSMEs face the greatest challenges in gaining needed IP protection in India.

In the final analysis,  the challenges facing India’s innovative MSMEs may provide the best response to IP-skeptics on the important connection between IP protection and innovation.

Unlike many larger firms, R&D Intensive MSMEs rely to a much greater degree on their innovative capacities and the ability to protect their creations – whether these are copyrighted works, trademarked products or patentable inventions. MSMEs in OECD-member states like Israel and the United States that have a greater ability to protect and commercialize their technologies, have a track record of creating substantial economic and social benefit in the process.

In fact the original third HRD IP Expert, Prabuddha Ganguly, has undertaken critical research in this area in his role as a WIPO consultant.  He has presented compelling data on the importance of IP protection for MSME enterprises at WIPO events around the globe, as in this paper for a 2004 regional WIPO event in Oman.

Beyond any research, my ongoing work as co-founder of emerging Indian biotech Amrita Therapeutics and consulting (transactional) work for innovative MSMEs provides daily reminders of the causal relationship between the ability of MSMEs to protect their creative works, process and/or products through IP protection, and the effective diffusion and assimilation of new technologies for creation of social and economic value.

Comparing the Basheer/Pai manifesto side by side with the Draft National IPR Policy underscores the wisdom of the Modi Government’s reboot, and calls to mind the old saw:  those who can do, those who can’t teach.  However much we may benefit from IP-Skeptics who keep challenging our IP assumptions, it may better for the rest of us if they are not charged with actual policy making in the meantime!

About the author:
President of Finston Consulting LLC since 2005, Susan works with innovative biotechnology and other clients ranging from start-up to Fortune-100, providing support for legal, transactional, policy and “doing business” issues. Susan has extensive background and special expertise relating to intellectual property and knowledge-economy issues in advanced developing countries including India and South Asia, Latin America and the Middle East North Africa (MENA) region. She also works with governments, and NGOs on capacity building and related educational programs through BayhDole25. Together with biotechnology pioneer Ananda Chakrabarty, she also is co-founder of Amrita Therapeutics Ltd., an emerging biopharmaceutical company based in India with cancer peptide drugs entering in vivo research. Previous experience includes 11 years in the U.S Foreign Service with overseas tours in London, Tel Aviv, and Manila and at the Department of State in Washington DC. For more information on latest presentations and publications please visit finstonconsulting.com.

Journal of Commercial Biotechnology This paper is part of the free Open Access archive of the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

What will it take to get institutional investors interested in life sciences again?

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ABSTRACT: With the European biotechnology market nearing a crisis state, companies must try to attract and maintain interest from institutional investors. In this article, a brief outline of who companies should be trying to appeal to and how these investors view the sector is followed by an assessment of the areas that management must focus on to attract investors...

The Journal of Commercial Biotechnology is a unique forum for all those involved in biotechnology commercialization to present, share, and explore new ideas, latest thinking and best practices, making it an indispensable guide for those developing projects and careers within this fast moving field.

Each issue publishes peer-reviewed, authoritative, cutting-edge articles written by the leading practitioners and researchers in the field, addressing topics such as:

  • Management
  • Policy
  • Finance
  • Law
  • Regulation
  • Bioethics

For more information, see the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology website

Journal of Commercial Biotechnology This paper is part of the free Open Access archive of the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology

Growth of Indian biotech companies, in the context of the international biotechnology industry

Go to paper

ABSTRACT: The paper discusses the evolution and growth of Indian biotech companies in recent years. It focuses on the alternative business models key players in the industry have adopted and highlights the activities and achievements of some of the globally competitive companies across various segments of the market...

The Journal of Commercial Biotechnology is a unique forum for all those involved in biotechnology commercialization to present, share, and explore new ideas, latest thinking and best practices, making it an indispensable guide for those developing projects and careers within this fast moving field.

Each issue publishes peer-reviewed, authoritative, cutting-edge articles written by the leading practitioners and researchers in the field, addressing topics such as:

  • Management
  • Policy
  • Finance
  • Law
  • Regulation
  • Bioethics

For more information, see the Journal of Commercial Biotechnology website